墨西哥灣細菌4個月吃光外洩甲烷 科學家總是對環境遽變充滿好奇,而突如其來的災害有時還助他們一臂之力。英國石油公司(BP)在墨西哥灣的「深水地平線」(Deepwater Horizon)鑽油井,去年4月因發生爆炸意外,造成大量原油外洩;本來擔心會為海洋生態帶來嚴重衝擊,但美國科學家發現,海中的細菌在短短120天內,就把油污中的甲烷分解完畢。 根據最新一期的《科學》(Science)雜誌記載,溫室氣體─甲烷本就會從海底九份民宿噴口、裂縫等處不定時釋放出來,但長久下來卻未造成地球暖化的現象,由於科學家無法精準掌握甲烷釋出的時機,因此始終不能做出有系統的數據來解釋;然而鑽油井爆炸事件造成百萬加侖的原油及氣體外洩,反而提供科學家一個絕佳的機會。 他們在墨西哥灣布下200多個檢測點,在油氣洩漏期間及井口封閉以後,針對海水中的甲烷與氧分布進行勘測,發現在爆炸後的120天內,洩出的甲烷幾乎全然消失。 科學家推測,也許是裝潢大量的甲烷逸出,連帶加速消化細菌的繁殖,這代表海底微生物有其平衡的機制,以抑制過量的溫室氣體進入大氣層中;而且不只甲烷,消化細菌連乙烷跟丙烷都能快速地分解。科學家表示,未來說不定可以透過這些微生物,找到緩和全球暖化的方法。原文網址: 神奇的大自然!墨西哥灣細菌4個月吃光外洩甲烷 | 頭條新聞 | NOWnews 今日新聞網 http://www.nownews.com/2011/01/07/91-2680151.htm#ixzz1AOYZUCGM Bacteria 酒肉朋友Ate All the Methane From the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, New Study Says Following the greatest environmental catastrophe in recent history, the lowest life forms among us have been the biggest heroes. Once again, scientists have found that bacteria ate up the remnants of the the Deepwater Horizon disaster.Within four months of the oil spill, bacterial blooms had removed more 酒店兼職than 200,000 metric tons of dissolved methane, returning concentrations to normal background levels. That was a surprise, because in mid-June, scientists found methane concentrations nearly 100,000 times above normal levels, and learned it was decomposing slowly, suggesting it would take years for the hydrocarbon to dissipate.“We couldn’t have been more wrong. It decomposed 辦公室出租rather quickly and was completely consumed within a matter of months,” said lead researcher John Kessler, an oceanographer at Texas A&M University , in a news release. Kessler and colleagues took three cruises aboard the NOAA ship Pisces between Aug. 18 and Oct. 4, collecting 207 separate water samples and measuring their oxygen and methane concentrations. Oxygen drops when 烤肉食材bacteria breathe methane, so the researchers say the depleted oxygen levels can only be explained by consumption of the methane.They also examined the genetic sequences of bacteria in the samples, which suggested a growing population of methane-munching life forms.Methane, the primary ingredient in natural gas, was to blame for the spill in the first place — on April 20, a 酒店兼職methane bubble surged from the Macondo well up the Deepwater Horizon’s drill column, busting several seals as it belched toward the rig. The resulting explosion killed 11 workers and severed the rig from the well, allowing oil to spew forth for 83 days.As workers attempted to burn, vacuum, sponge and contain the oil, invisible microbial communities were hard at work. 買屋Scientists said last August that a previously undiscovered species of bacteria had made quick work of a massive oil plume; apparently methanotrophs, species of methane-munching bacteria, were also feasting on the spill. Bacteria have evolved to live with the Gulf’s naturally occurring oil seeps and high methane concentrations, so it makes sense that they were ready to go to 租房子work. Apparently they are more effective than we thought.As with any controversial study, not everyone was satisfied with the results — Ian MacDonald, a professor of biological oceanography at Florida State University , told NPR the team did not account for deep-sea currents that could have carried away the methane. Further studies will shed more light on the findings. 房地產deepwater horizon | Popular Science

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